Crude Oil Topping Units
Pyramid E&C builds topping refineries which are suitable for light, low sulphur crudes to produce automotive fuels, i.e., diesel and gasoline from crude oil and condensate. The building blocks of these refineries include Desalting, Atmospheric Distillation and Side Stream Stripping. The yields and the treatment required depend on the API gravity, sulphur and other properties of the crude. Utilities include a Fuel Gas System and tanks for product storage.
- Fired Heater
- Desalter System
- Distillation Column
- Stripper Column
- Flare System
- Chemical Injection System
- Diesel Generator Set
- Fuel Oil System
- Steam Boiler
- Storage Tanks
- Truck Loading Terminal
Crude Oil is first treated in a Desalter Unit where salt in water, or brine, is removed. The crude oil is heated in a Fired Heater from which it enters the flash zone of an Atmospheric Column. Natural gas condensate can also be included in the feed or introduced directly into the Column.
The crude oil mixture is separated into different cuts by boiling range. The Crude Column produces naphtha, kerosene, and diesel as the side streams. The Crude Column bottom product, also called reduced crude is used as fuel oil.
In large Atmospheric Columns, pump arounds are used for intermediate heat recovery to the crude feed which reduces furnace firing. For small refineries of the order of 10,000 BOPD, allowing all heat removal to occur in the Overhead Condenser often minimizes CAPEX.
Products are withdrawn from the tower under temperature control; by modeling the tower, it is possible to predict the temperature, pressure, and number of trays required to produce the desired product specifications. The tower products are stripped of light ends using steam or Reboilers. This controls the inlet specification such as flash point of the product.
Depending on the viscosity, reduced crude can be used as fuel oil directly. alternatively, kerosene or diesel can be blended with the reduced crude to produce fuel oil.