Marine Loading Facilities
More than five decades that has elapsed since the first introduction of offshore loading for oil tankers, the marine transportation industry has seen many significant changes, notably an enormous increase in the size of oil tankers. With the introduction of these much deeper hulls and the reduced maneuverability that comes with Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs), it became imperative to develop suitably safe and efficient deep water berthing facilities.
Pyramid E&C provide comprehensive EPC solution for Marine Loading, depending upon project requirements, one of following approaches are selected for marine loading or unloading.
- Loading and Unloading Jetty
- Single Buoy Mooring
Loading and Unloading Jetty: These are the most commonly used facilities for ship loading and unloading. Transfer stations use articulated steel tube loaders or hose safety systems with drift protection and breakaway couplings to prevent product from being discharged into the water.
Loading Station: The vessel is loaded from the tanks by the pumps via a calibrated and temperature-compensated measuring system. The hydrocarbon vapors which are generated during the loading operation which is routed to a vapor recovery system.
Unloading Station: Unloading is carried out by the vessel’s own pumps or stationary pumps on the jetty.
Apart from Loading and Unloading Stations, the Jetty may include the following systems:
- Marine Loading Arms
- Flare System
- Vapor Recovery
- Fire Fighting System
- Jetty Controls
Single Buoy Mooring: A Single Buoy Mooring (SBM) anchored to the sea bed enables berthing of a ship by bow lines only, without the aid of tugs. It means that the mooring structure could be optimally designed and therefore extremely cost-effective to manufacture and install.
Major benefits of offshore loading by Single Buoy Mooring system may be summarized as follows:
- Lower capital cost than equivalent fixed jetty-type facilities
- Lower terminal operating costs with no tugs required
- Much faster project implementation from inception to commissioning
- Faster ship turnaround times with elimination of demurrage
- Minimum use of valuable coastal real estate
- Location in deep water to accommodate VLCCs
The SBM is connected to product tanks through subsea pipelines that enable loading or unloading of the tanker. The tanker is connected to the manifold on the SBM using floating hoses.